Food Security or Food Sovereignty? Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture
Indonesian military (TNI) involvement in the agricultural sector had begun since the 1960s when they had a significant role in a global modernization of agriculture project led by the US government and world donor agencies, namely the Green Revolution. In 2015, TNI signed a MoU with the Ministry of Agriculture in a “Special Efforts Program for Accelerating Food Production” which again delivers an important role to the military in the agricultural sector by implementing a Green Revolution oriented farming. This paper, in contrasts to some of the previous writings, does not examine the right or wrong of this involvement. This study provides a paradigmatic response to a question, why TNI insists on implementing a program that after 50 years has not proven successful in reaching the target of food self-sufficiency? Based on literature studies and analysis of empirical data, this study suggests that there is a paradigmatic misperception among the policy makers, both civil and military, about food security concept. The authors also offer a new implementation framework based on the concept of food sovereignty that can be performed by policy makers in Indonesia and other developing countries.